Monads are programmable semicolons. That’s it. For a programmer, a monad provides functions that allow for sequencing actions. Moreover, between every two following actions, a specific code snippet is executed.
Can prime numbers be written as the sum of two squares? For 13 this is possible (2²+3²), but for example, 3 cannot be written in this way. Pierre de Fermat came up with a theorem on this topic, for which Don Zagier, an American mathematician gave a proof, which astonishingly is just one sentence long.
Game theory is a branch of mathematics with a lot of applications. Especially in economics, game theory plays a very important role. That’s the reason why a lot of mathematicians are presented with the Nobel prize in economics. A widely known example is John Forbes Nash, who’s life is illustrated in the movie “A beautiful mind”.